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Accueil du site > Equipes de Recherche > Outils pour une gestion durable du foncier et de l’environnement urbain dans un contexte de transition politique. Municipalités de Bethlehem, Beit Jala and Beit Sahour, Palestine. > Conclusions and policy implications

Policy Tools towards Sustainable Land Use and Urban Environmental Management under a Transitional Political Context

Conclusions and policy implications

As a conclusion let us present what appear to be the main constraints facing the implementation of the proposed policies. The unstable political conditions, characterized by Israeli military presence in the West Bank, the lack of Palestinian sovereignty over their lands and resources, the Segregation Wall the Israelis are constructing on the Palestinian lands, together with the fragmentation of the West Bank into smaller Israeli controlled cantons are the main constraints the Palestinians are facing in implementing sound sustainable development.

Of the major constraints towards the implementation of policies, we identify the weakness of the executive body to enforce the legislations and prevent violations accompanied with the weakness of the legal system to support the issuance and execution of rules and laws. Beside, the presence of outdated laws that need to be adapted to the needs of the local people and the changing conditions. Another important constraint comes from the serious deficiencies both in the national budget and the local budgets, accompanied by the financial dependency of local governments on the central government. These deficiencies also deter the local government and the municipalities from hiring appropriate professionals to prepare and implement development plans, including master plans, demographic strategies, environmental management plans, etc. Additionally, initiatives towards the decentralization are still stumbling. Also, there are unclear mandates for the different ministries and departments ; where in some cases the same mandate is given to more than one ministry, which creates confusion and conflict over the roles of the different departments/ministries, in addition to the lack of coordination between the different departments, ministries and institutions. Another constraint is the lack of awareness between community members about their rights in participation in planning and development.

The unstable political conditions make it hard for the municipalities and local government to draft and implement developmental plans at the regional and local levels, where the absence of these strategies make it difficult to implement integrated clear policies. In addition, constraints facing the implementation of the policies proposed in the previous section include the deficiencies in the organizational and administrative structures in the municipalities which make the processes of planning, implementation and monitoring of development project difficult.